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  • Shelby Pietersen

The Basics of Seed Types

The Seed: What is it? A plant's seed is its fundamental component.


After fertilization, the ovules transform into seeds. An embryo plus a seed coat are the two basic components of a seed. A radicle, an embryonal axis, and one (eg. wheat or maize) or two cotyledons make up the embryo.


Fruits contain seeds that, when planted, develop into new plants. The seed is a crucial component of the reproductive cycle.


Let's examine the various seed varieties and analyze their traits


Different Types of Seeds

There are mainly two sorts of seeds. The two varieties are:

● Monocotyledonous Seed

● Dicotyledonous Seed


Typically, a seed has two essential components:

● an embryo;

● a seed coat.

● In addition, in most monocotyledons and endospermic dicotyledons, the endosperm

serves as a source of nourishment for the embryo.


The plant life cycle's embryonic stage is represented by the seed. As we have mentioned, the embryo, endosperm, and seed coat are the three main components of most seeds. A root, stem, and one or more leaves can be found on the embryo, which is the basics of a miniature plant.


The nutritive part of the seed is called the endosperm, and it frequently contains a mixture of starch, oil, and protein. The seed coat acts as a barrier that can keep seeds alive for a very long time.


When eating fleshy fruits, we frequently avoid the seeds, although many typical dry food items contain seeds. The majority of edible legumes, such as peas, beans, lentils, and peanuts are, in fact, seeds. Although a nut is actually a fruit, we typically just consume the seed when we consume our favourite nuts, such as pecans, cashews, walnuts, and filberts.


Despite not coming from a nut, pine nuts, almonds, and Brazil nuts are all seeds. Some spices, like nutmeg, mustard, and fenugreek, are seeds. Coffee beans and cocoa beans, two of our favourite non-legume "beans," have seeds. Many common seeds used in commerce, such as poppy, flax, and pumpkin seeds, are actually seeds.


What about grains, such as those found in rice, corn, and cereal? The majority of what we eat in cereals — and almost all of the nutritional value —comes from the seed. Technically speaking, grains are seeds that are united to the ovary wall, making them fruits.

Some More Facts About Seed

Angiosperms, blooming plants with seeds enclosed in ovaries, and gymnosperms, or

"naked-seeded" plants like conifers and cycads are two subgroups of spermatophytes or seed plants. Seeds are a key characteristic of spermatophytes.


Ferns and mosses are a few plants that do not produce seeds. Around 300 million years ago, seed plants first occur in the fossil record. Today, with nearly 400,000 species, they are the most diverse and numerous plant groups on the planet.


A large portion of the variation in the size and form of seeds is related to the means of

dissemination. The Coco de Mer seed, one of the biggest, is about a foot long and can weigh up to 40 pounds. Since this seed floats, allowing it to move around the Indian Ocean archipelago of Seychelles.


On the other hand, even the unaided eye cannot perceive some of the tiniest seeds, which are found in epiphytic orchids and are only 85 micrometres (or 1/300th of an inch) long. These seeds are scattered throughout the atmosphere like tiny dust particles. They have tiny, undeveloped embryos and no endosperm.


Some seeds include fleshy appendages that draw the attention of animal dispersers and tempt them to consume them. Other seeds feature hooks, barbs, or sticky hairs that stick to fur or feathers.


How are seeds formed?

After pollination, a fertilised ovule develops into a seed. Despite how crucial seeds are, we know very little about the genetic regulation of seed growth and development in the context of the life cycle of plants, not to mention as food for us and other animals.


Most research has been done so far on the angiosperm of the mustard family Arabidopsis

thaliana, which has served as a single "model" species (Brassicaceae). The genes responsible for the ovule and seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana have been identified through investigations, however, it is impossible to comprehend how plants came to have such a diverse range of seed types due to the lack of extensive research involving a variety of plant groups.


This research also offers a tiny glimpse into the vast realm of what we do not know about the

inner workings of plants. Look at any plant in your backyard. We usually know what species it is, and we may have an excellent idea of what other species it is related to. We can even walk you through a simple summary of the most important features of its structure and how it is put together. But when it comes to questions about its most basic functions, including the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms of how it grows and survives in its environment, there are still many astounding discoveries to be made.


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